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The Pirate Bay
The Pirate Bay sometimes abbreviated to TPB is an online index of digital content of entertainment media and software. In April , the website's founders Peter Sunde , Fredrik Neij , and Gottfrid Svartholm were found guilty in the Pirate Bay trial in Sweden for assisting in copyright infringement and were sentenced to serve one year in prison and pay a fine. Subsequently, proxy websites have been providing access to it. The Pirate Bay has sparked controversies and discussion about legal aspects of file sharing , copyright , and civil liberties and has become a platform for political initiatives against established intellectual property laws and a central figure in an anti-copyright movement. They have both been accused of "assisting in making copyrighted content available" by the Motion Picture Association of America. On 31 May , the website's servers in Stockholm were raided and taken away by Swedish police, leading to three days of downtime.
Churn rate sometimes called attrition rate , in its broadest sense, is a measure of the number of individuals or items moving out of a collective group over a specific period. It is one of two primary factors that determine the steady-state level of customers a business will support. The term is used in many contexts, but is most widely applied in business with respect to a contractual customer base, for example in businesses with a subscriber-based service model such as mobile telephone networks and pay TV operators. The term is also used to refer to participant turnover in peer-to-peer networks. Churn rate is an input into customer lifetime value modeling, and can be part of a simulator used to measure return on marketing investment using marketing mix modeling.
A botnet is a number of Internet -connected devices, each of which is running one or more bots. Botnets can be used to perform distributed denial-of-service attack DDoS attack , steal data,  send spam, and allows the attacker to access the device and its connection. The term is usually used with a negative or malicious connotation.